Autoimmune conditions






HASHIMOTO and Mercury exposure: RESEARCH

Mercury and thyroid autoantibodies in U.S. women, NHANES 2007-2008


Associations between positive thyroid autoantibodies and total blood mercury in women were evaluated using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2008. Women are at increased risk for autoimmune disorders, mercury exposure has been associated with cellular autoimmunity and mercury accumulates in the thyroid gland. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate the associations between total bloodmercury and thyroglobulin autoantibody antibody positivity and thyroid peroxidase autoantibody positivity in non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged 20 and older not currently using birth control pills or other hormone therapies, adjusted for demographic factors, menopausal status, nutrient intake and urine iodine (n=2047). Relative to women with the lowest mercury levels (≤0.40 μg/L), women with mercury >1.81 μg/L (upper quintile) showed 2.24 (95% CI=1.22, 4.12) greater odds for thyroglobulin autoantibody positivity (p(trend)=0.032); this relationship was not evident for thyroid peroxidase autoantibody positivity. Results suggest an association between mercury and thyroglobulin autoantibody positivity.



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Objective: Mercury and other toxic metals have been suggested to be involved in thyroid disorders, but the distribution and prevalence of mercury in the human thyroid gland is not known. We therefore used two elemental bio-imaging techniques to look at the distribution of mercury and other toxic metals in the thyroid glands of people over a wide range of ages.

Materials and methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded thyroid tissue blocks were obtained from 115 people aged 1-104 years old, with varied clinicopathological conditions, who had thyroid samples removed during forensic/coronial autopsies. Seven-micron sections from these tissue blocks were used to detect intracellular inorganic mercury using autometallography. The presence of mercury was confirmed using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry which can detect multiple elements.

Results: Mercury was found on autometallography in the thyroid follicular cells of 4% of people aged 1-29 years, 9% aged 30-59 years, and 38% aged 60-104 years. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of mercury in samples staining with autometallography, and detected cadmium, lead, iron, nickel and silver in selected samples.

Conclusions: The proportion of people with mercury in their thyroid follicular cells increases with age, until it is present in over one-third of people aged 60 years and over. Other toxic metals in thyroid cells could enhance mercury toxicity. Mercury can trigger genotoxicity, autoimmune reactions, and oxidative damage, which raises the possibility that mercury could play a role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancers, autoimmune thyroiditis, and hypothyroidism.




2023 Jul 3:14:1215329.

doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1215329. eCollection 2023.

Hericium erinaceus, in combination with natural flavonoid/alkaloid and B3/B8 vitamins, can improve inflammatory burden in Inflammatory bowel diseases tissue: an ex vivo study


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Hericium erinaceus, berberine, and quercetin are effective in experimental colitis. It is unknown whether they can ameliorate inflammatory bowel diseases in humans. This ex vivo study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of a nutraceutical compound of HBQ-Complex® (H. erinaceus, berberine, and quercetin), biotin, and niacin in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Tissue specimens were obtained either from Normal-Appearing Mucosa (NAM) or from Inflamed Mucosa (IM) in 20 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. mRNA and protein expression of COX-2, IL-10, and TNF-α were determined in NAM and IM biopsy samples (T0). IM samples were then incubated in HBQ-Complex® (with the addition of niacin and biotin), and COX-2, IL-10, and TNF-α tissue levels were evaluated at 120 minutes (T1) and 180 minutes (T2). Incubation with this compound resulted in a progressive decrease in gene and protein COX-2 and TNF-α expression at T1/T2 in the IM. IL-10 showed an opposite trend, with a progressive increase of mRNA and protein expression over the same time window. HBQ-Complex® (with the addition of niacin and biotin) decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines at the mRNA and protein levels in IBD tissue. On the contrary, mRNA and protein expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 showed a progressive increase.

 2017 Aug 2;7(1):7139.



















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